How many calories in an Apple Pie?


Of course, there are many different apple pies, and many different serving portions  too!!!

So…let’s do the calculations with a “standar” apple pie…certainly not the best but it is standard, so standard that it is the same all around the world!

Of course, I am talking about the MacDonald Apple pie!

Nutrition facts of the Macdonald baked Apple pie (taken from the label):

Proteins 2g

Fat 13 g

Carbohydrates 32 g

Sodium 170 mg

How many calories are obtained when you eat 1 serving size of this pie?

About Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)



The Dietary Reference Intake can be defined  a system of nutrition recommendations that estimates the amounts of nutrients required to prevent deficiencies and maintain optimal Health.


The DRI includes some concepts that sometimes are used as equivalents, when they are not. In other cases, the same concept receive different names, depending of the source of the article you are reading.

DRIs consists of four dietary reference standards:


1.- Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): Average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of one half of the healthy individuals in a specific age and gender group.


 2.- Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): Average daily Dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97-98%) individuals (EAR+2DS) on each life state and gender group. It is approximately 20 % higher than the EAR. RDA are printed in food labels in the United States and Canada.  (The definition of RDA is similar to the definition of  Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI)  used by the World Health Organization and other international organizations).


 3.- Adequate Intake (AI): Estimation of nutrient intake in healthy people (used when EAR and RDA are not known)


 4.- Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): Highest average daily intake level from food, water and supplements that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effect from excess in almost all apparently healthy individuals in an age and gender specific population group. (This concept is important mainly in relation to nutritional supplements, since the ingestion of natural foods is regulated in the body through mechanisms of absorption and excretion), In absence of observations of known adverse effects, it is used a default value of 10 times de Recommended Dietary Allowance.


More information about these reference standards can be found at:


Dietary Reference Intake

Reference dialy Intake 

 Interactive DRI for health care professionals

 Yates, A.A.: Dietary Reference Intakes –What is new and how to use them (Power point presentation)

Who Experts Committee:

Vitamin and Mineral requirements in human nutrition

World Health Organization, 2004

About Tea and Toasts


A 70 year-old English lady that lives alone is admitted to the hospital for evaluation of a leg wound that is not healing properly. The patient also complains of pain in muscle and bones. On the examination, you find some hemorrhagic lesions in the skin, including ecchymosis in buttocks and both legs and petechiaes in other areas of the skin. The nails show splinter hemorrhages. When asked about her dietetic habits, the patient refers that she is too old to eat so much, so she has a very frugal lunch and dinners based mainly in tea and toasts.

Laboratory examinations show normal blood coagulation tests and Hemoglobin of 9.8 g/dL


The treatment for the condition described above should consist mainly in the administration of the following vitamin:


a)     Ascorbic Acid

b)     Biotin

c)      Folic Acid

d)     Pantothenic acid

e)     Niacin

f)       Vitamin B1

g)     Vitamin B2

h)    Vitamin B6

i)       Vitamin B12

j)       Vitamin D

k)     Vitamin E

l)       Vitamin K

Today FDA warns to stop using Hydroxycut products


The Food and Drug Administration have warned consumers today to stop immediately the use of Hydroxycut products, since the use of these products have been related to some cases  of severe liver injuries.


More information in the FDA site:


FDA Warns Consumers to Stop Using Hydroxycut Products


Hydroxycut products.

Q: About Micronutrients and pregnancy


A very anxious 30 year-old female patient goes  to your office because she is late 10 days.  The patient tells you that she is trying to have a baby,  since in a former pregnancy, two years ago, she lost a baby that was born with anencephaly. You indicate pregnancy tests but they do not confirm pregnancy.

Even when the pregnancy test were negatives, which of the following micronutrients you should prescribe to this patient?


a)     Ascorbate


b)     Calcium


c)      Cianocobalamine


d)     Folate


e)     Iron


f)       Niacin


g)     Riboflavin


h)    Vitamin A


i)       Vitamin D


j)       Vitamin E


k)     Vitamin K


Q: About dry eyes, dry skin…


A 45-year-old, overweight male patient  presents to his physician complaining of dry skin with rash episodes, a sensation of dry eyes and lost of vision, mainly at night.  During  questioning,  he says he lost 60 lbs. during the previous year, following a very strict fat-free diet that he modified from some readings.


Which of the following liposoluble vitamins could be deficient in the patient and causing the above described symptoms?


a)     Vitamin A


b)     Vitamin D


c)      Vitamin E


d)     Vitamin F


e)     Vitamin K


Vitamin K and Newborns


Given that:


– Vitamin K is not easily transported from the mother to the fetus through the placenta

– Newborns have sterile intestines and cannot initially synthesize vitamin K.

– Human milk has very low concentrations of vitamin K,


some authors recommends that all newborns receive a single intramuscular dose of Vitamin K, since Vitamin K is a liposoluble vitamin necessary for:


a)     the prevention of oxidative damage


b)     Ca++ and phosphate metabolism


c)      the vision process


d)     the synthesis of some coagulation factors


e)     the differentiation of epithelial cells.