Andersen’s Disease is a rare disease caused by the deficit of the Branching enzyme, responsible for the formation of branches in glycogen structure. This results in an abnormal glycogen with few branching points and long peripheral chains. Clinically, hepatoesplenomegaly, cirrhosis of the liver and hepatic failure are major concerns. As the problem is located in the branching points, it is obvious that there is a defect in the formation of:
a) Alpha 1,4 -O-glycosidic linkages
b) Alpha 1,6 -O-glycosidic linkages
c) Alpha 1 ,Beta 2 -O-glycosidic linkages
d) Beta1,3 -O-glycosidic linkages
e) Beta1,4 -O-glycosidic linkages
f) Beta1,6 -O-glycosidic linkages
Questions C-06 to C-08
Another format you can expect to see in your Multiple Choice exams:
Choose, among the following polysaccharides, which correspond to each of the questions that appear below:
d) Hyaluronic acid
f) Chondroitin Sulfate
(C-06) This carbohydrate acts as lubricant of synovial fluid and contributes to
tensile strength and elasticity of cartilages and tendons. It is also an
important component of skin.
(C-07) It is the most important polysaccharide in human diet:
(C-08 ) It is the form in which glucose is stored in muscle and liver for ulterior use as fuel:
A 15-year-old black male patient complains that lately, after the ingestion of dairy products, he experiences bloating, cramps and flatulence, and sometimes diarrhea. With this information, it is reasonable to think that the patient is intolerant to:
Answer to C-03
This heteropolysaccharide has multiple uses in Medicine that include its use in blood transfusions to prevent the blood from coagulating before administration, as anticoagulant therapy in prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, in pulmonary embolisms and in other similar situations:
a) Hyaluronic acid
b) Chondroitin- 4- Sulfate
c) Chondroitin- 6- Sulfate
e) Dermatan Sulfate
Answer to C-04
Human beings don’t have the enzymes necessary for the hydrolysis of the beta1,4-O-glycosidic linkages between molecules of glucose. That is why we can not digest this compound and it is part of some laxatives.
Answer to C-05
A three year old male patient was transferred to your Hospital for further investigation of hepatomegaly. His parents were first cousins. It was learned that he was hospitalized for recurrent vomiting at two months of age, but no obvious cause was found and the symptoms then disappeared spontaneously. When he was three years old, his parents noticed his failure to thrive and hepatomegaly was noted on physical examination. Lab tests showed fructosemia and fructosuria. Other tests confirmed a Hereditary Fructose Intolerance. Besides fructose, which of the following carbohydrates should be obviously forbidden in this patient diet?
A Carbohydrate Puzzle:
Find the name of ten carbohydrates in this Carbohydrate Puzzle.
Hyaluronidase has been used most commonly in eye surgery in combination with local anesthetics. This enzyme hydrolyses hyaluronic acid, a component of connective tissue, increasing tissue permeability and promoting the spread of other drugs (for example, increasing the onset of action for an anesthetic). Hyaluronic acid, hydrolyzed by this enzyme, is a carbohydrate in the group of: