Clinical applications of plasmatic enzymes studies.


 

 

Measuring plasma enzymes activity is an important tool in diagnosis and monitoring of treatment.

 

Enzymes that have a physiological rol in blood, like coagulation enzymes, are present in plasma, but also can be found small quantities of enzymes that normally are present in tissues.

 

These quantities increase in some diseases of tissues and organs, since as a consequence of increased death cells or changes in cell membranes permeability, intracellular enzymes are released into plasma, giving clues about some organs diseases.

 

There is a strong association between the finding of an increase in plasma of particular enzymes, and the damage of organs that are rich in those enzymes.

 

A brief (and incomplete)  list of enzymes that have been useful as diagnostic tools, and its main diagnostic uses include:

 

Enzymes and Related Diseases

 

Acid Phosphatase .- Some Prostatic diseases

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT). -Liver, Heart diseases

Aldolase .- Some muscle diseases

Alkaline Phosphatase.- Liver and Bone diseases

Amylase.- Pancreatic diseases

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) .- Active Sarcoidosis

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST).- Heart, Liver diseases

Cholinestarase (pseudocholinestarase).- Acute organophosphorus poisoning

Creatin Kinase (CK or CPK) .- Heart, Muscle diseases

Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT).- Liver disease, alcohol rehabilitation

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH).- Heart, Liver, Brain diseases

Lipase .-Pancreatitis

Lysozyme.- Some acute leukemias

 

More general information about the use of enzymes in diagnostic can be found here.

 

As discussed previously, some enzymes that catalyze the same reaction, have different structure. They are called Isoenzymes or Isozymes.  The diagnostic importance of  the determination of the different isoenzymes of an enzyme, has been discussed in a former post.

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